Archive for the 'PA – Discovery and Evidence' Category

COURT PERMITS SOME UNDERWRITING DISCOVERY EVEN IN THE ABSENCE OF A STATUTORY BAD FAITH CLAIM (Middle District)

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The insurer denied coverage under a “regular use exclusion” in this UIM case. The complaint included a breach of contract claim, but no statutory bad faith claim. Plaintiff wanted to depose plaintiff’s corporate designee. The carrier argued the proposed deposition subjects were irrelevant to coverage, absent a bad faith claim, and moved for a protective order.

Middle District Magistrate Judge Saporito found that plaintiff could pursue certain limited discovery on underwriting, even absent a statutory bad faith claim. This was based primarily on the insurer raising the “regular use exclusion” as an affirmative defense, and the insureds alleging that the carrier owed “a fiduciary, contractual and statutory obligation to investigate, evaluate, and negotiate [her] UIM claim in good faith and to arrive at a prompt, fair, and equitable settlement.” [The reference to “statutory obligation” was not interpreted to mean plaintiffs were pleading a section 8371 statutory bad faith claim.]

Plaintiff had already deposed the carrier’s adjuster, but wanted a corporate designee to testify on the regular use exclusion and underwriting practices. This included the following subjects:

  1. The underwriting procedures in place … for the period January 1, 2017[,] through the current date;

  2. The underwriting regulations necessary to obtain the status of “preferred driver” under a … policy of insurance;

  3. The determinative factors and costs associated with UIM coverage …;

  4. The determinative factors and costs associated with UM coverage …;

  5. The determinative factors and costs associated with stacking of UIM coverage…;

  6. The determinative factors and costs associated with stacking of UM coverage …;

  7. The factors [the insurer] utilizes in determining whether a vehicle is available for the “regular use” of an insured;

  8. How the term “regular use” is defined in the applicable … policy and related documents;

  9. Whether the … regular use exclusion must be accompanied by a stacking waiver;

  10. All steps and measures [the insurer] takes to explain to its insureds the effect of the “regular use exclusion,” “household exclusion,” “family car exclusion,” and “unlisted driver exclusion”;

  11. How the regular use exclusion is discussed in the [insurer’s] Claims Manual; and

  12. Any facts supporting [the insurer’s] legal theories and defenses.

The court found that although the insureds did not allege statutory bad faith, they did plead breach of the contractual duty of good faith and fair dealing. Magistrate Judge Saporito found this sufficient to open the door to some greater discovery compared to a simple breach of contract case.  He relied on three cases permitting discovery on the carrier’s decisionmaking process, even in the absence of a statutory bad faith count. Rau v. Allstate, Swientisky v. American States, and Craker v. State Farm.

The court found the following areas of inquiry relevant and discoverable: factors used to determine “whether a vehicle is available for the ‘regular use’ of an insured”; “[h]ow the term ‘regular use’ is defined in the applicable … policy and related documents”; whether the “regular use exclusion must be accompanied by a stacking waiver”; “[h]ow the regular use exclusion is discussed in the [insurer’s] Claims Manual”; “[a]ny facts supporting [the insurer’s] legal theories and defenses”; and “[a]ll steps and measures [the insurer] takes to explain to its insureds the effect of the ‘regular use exclusion….”

On the other hand, discovery was not permitted on matters “irrelevant to the issue regarding the application of the ‘regular use exclusion,’ as they relate to underwriting procedures, underwriting regulations necessary to obtain the status of ‘preferred driver,’ and the determinative factors and costs associated with UIM and UM coverage as well as stacking for those coverages.” Discovery concerning other exclusions was also irrelevant.

Thus, discovery was specifically barred for “[t]he underwriting procedures in place … for the period January 1, 2017[,] through the current date”; underwriting regulations necessary to obtain preferred driver status;  “[t]he determinative factors and costs associated with UIM coverage”; “determinative factors and costs associated with UM coverage”; “determinative factors and costs associated with stacking of UIM coverage”; and “determinative factors and costs associated with stacking of UM coverage….”

Magistrate Judge Saporito further found the permitted discovery proportional, stating “the amount in controversy represents two-thirds of the total available insurance; [the insurer], as the drafter of the policy, has ready access to all relevant information especially regarding the denial of the claim; the importance of the discovery may be determinative of the issue whether the plaintiffs are entitled to any UIM benefits under the policy; and the burden of producing one witness is outweighed by the benefit in answering the questions about the validity of [the insurer’s] affirmative defense of the regular use exclusion.”

Date of Decision: November 4, 2020

Evanina v. The First Liberty Insurance Corporation, U.S. District Court Middle District of Pennsylvania No. 3:20-cv-00751, 2020 WL 6494883 (M.D. Pa. Nov. 4, 2020) (Saporito, Jr., M.J.)

THERE CANNOT BE A BAD FAITH CLAIM AGAINST AN INSURER IF THAT INSURER HAD NO DUTY TO DEFEND (Philadelphia Federal)

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A putative additional insured brought breach of contract and bad faith claims.  The insurer denied a defense and indemnification on the basis that the policy did not cover the additional insured. The court agreed, and then granted the carrier summary judgment on all claims.

As to the bad faith claim, the plaintiff’s“sole argument for its bad faith claim is based on the lapse in time between [the] request … for coverage in the [underlying] action on May 23, 2018 and [the] response denying coverage on October 22, 2018.” The court observed that while delay can be “’a relevant factor in determining whether bad faith has occurred … a long period of time between demand and settlement does not, on its own, necessarily constitute bad faith.’” “’Rather, courts have looked to the degree to which a defendant insurer knew that it had no basis to deny the claimant; if delay is attributable to the need to investigate further or even to simple negligence, no bad faith has occurred.’”

While these are significant points in measuring delay if a payment is due or defense owed, the court never had to reach the delay issue because the bad faith claim lacked merit once coverage was denied.  “There cannot be a bad faith claim against an insurer if that insurer had no duty to defend.” The court relied on 631 N. Broad St., LP v. Commonwealth Land Title Ins. Co. for this principle.

Thus, there was no evidence of bad faith under the circumstances. Rather, the undisputed evidence established that the insurer “correctly refused to defend and indemnify” the putative additional insured.

Date of Decision: September 15, 2020

Eastern, LLC v. Travelers Casualty Insurance Co. of America, U.S. District Court Eastern District of Pennsylvania No. CV 19-5283, 2020 WL 5534060 (E.D. Pa. Sept. 15, 2020) (Bartle, J.)

BAD FAITH CLAIM IS RIPE TO PROCEED; COURT REJECTS MOTION TO BIFURCATE OR SEVER (Philadelphia Federal)

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In this underinsured motorist bad faith case, Eastern District Judge DuBois denied both a motion to dismiss on ripeness grounds, and an alternative motion to server or bifurcate.

The complaint alleges the tortfeasor had $50,000 in coverage and the plaintiff/insured had $500,000 in UIM coverage. The tortfeasor agreed to settle at $47,000 and the UIM carrier consented. Plaintiffs alleged severe and permanent injuries and pursued a UIM claim.

Specifically, the insureds allege they complied with all policy terms and conditions; the insurer did not tender any UIM benefits or make any settlement offers; the insurer did not conduct any investigation into the claims; and the insurer played “cat and mouse” games by “continuously and systematically failing to communicate any offer of settlement or denial of benefits,” misleading plaintiffs as to potential settlement on at least nine occasions, and “purposefully ignoring [plaintiffs’] demand for underinsured motorist benefits.”

BAD FAITH CLAIM CAN PROCEED

First, Judge DuBois rejected the argument that the bad faith claim was not ripe until the breach of contract claim was actually decided. Among other things, the court stated: “Success on a statutory claim for bad faith does not necessarily depend on the success of the underlying breach of contract claim.” Relying on a 1996 Eastern District decision, the court quotes: “A claim for bad faith brought pursuant to § 8371 is a separate and distinct cause of action and is not contingent on the resolution of the underlying contract claim. A plaintiff may succeed on its bad faith claim even if it fails on the underlying breach of contract claim. Additionally, courts interpreting § 8371 have consistently entertained multi-count complaints containing both unresolved insurance contract disputes and bad faith claims.”

The court further relies on the unpublished Third Circuit decision, Gallatin Fuels, Inc. v. Westchester Fire Insurance Co., in reasoning that “’[a] finding that the insured did not ultimately have a duty to cover the plaintiff’s claim does not per se make the insured’s actions reasonable’ in hindsight.” Judge DuBois concludes: “Therefore, so long as the underlying contract claim is ripe, the bad faith claim is also ripe.”

After finding the claim ripe, the court finds plaintiffs can proceed on their bad faith claim. “Plaintiffs allege defendant acted in bad faith by failing to properly investigate their insurance claim, engage in settlement discussions, and communicate with them. This is ‘a separate and distinct’ cause of action from plaintiff’s claim that defendant breached the terms of the policy in failing to pay UIM benefits. … As such, a finding that defendant does not owe plaintiffs UIM benefits would not mandate a finding that defendant did not act in bad faith in handling the insurance claim.”

[Note: This opinion does not address the impact of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court’s decision in Toy v. Metropolitan Life Insurance Company in determining to what extend a statutory bad faith claim can proceed, if at all, when there is no duty to pay any benefits under the policy. Moreover, we have previously observed that Gallatin Fuels never addressed Toy. These issues have been discussed many times on the Blog, most recently here.

Of special note is Judge DuBois’ 2019 decision in Buck v. GEICO, which appears to emphasize, and confirm, the denial of a benefit as a predicate to statutory bad faith claims. Among other things, the Buck opinion looks to Toy as a leading authority, and not Gallatin Fuels. The Buck opinion includes language, in quotes below, stating:

“Even assuming that the bad faith denial of the benefits claimed by plaintiff was properly alleged in the Complaint, plaintiff’s argument fails because plaintiff does not allege the denial of any benefits within the meaning of the statute. ‘[B]ad faith’ as it concern[s] allegations made by an insured against his insurer ha[s] acquired a particular meaning in the law.’”

“Courts in Pennsylvania and the Third Circuit have consistently held that ‘[a] plaintiff bringing a claim under [§ 8371] must demonstrate that an insurer has acted in bad faith toward the insured through ‘any frivolous or unfounded refusal to pay proceeds of a policy.’”

The Buck plaintiff could not state a claim because “[n]one of the ‘benefits’ that defendant allegedly denied plaintiff concern the refusal to pay proceeds under an insurance policy. To the contrary, plaintiff concedes that he ‘does not allege bad faith for refusal to pay benefits.’”

Buck observes that cases have held “’section 8371 is not restricted to an insurer’s bad faith in denying a claim. An action for bad faith may also extend to the insurer’s investigative practices.’” This means, however, that bad faith claims “’need not be limited to the literal act of denying a claim.’”

Rather, “the essence of a bad faith claim must be the unreasonable and intentional (or reckless) denial of benefits.” “Thus, plaintiff must allege the denial of benefits to state a claim under § 8371.”]

In the present case, there seems to be no question that UIM coverage is provided, but only whether the plaintiff’s damages reach into the UIM coverage level or stop below $50,000. The insurer does not appear to challenge whether a plausible bad faith claim has been pleaded with adequate factual allegations, but only that the bad faith claim should not be allowed to proceed because it is not ripe. The court concludes that the UIM bad faith claim is ripe and can proceed.

MOTION TO BIFURCATE OR SEVER DENIED

The Procedures and Standards Governing Contract and Bad Faith Claims do not Favor Bifurcation or Severance.

Judge Dubois first rejected the argument that the claims should be severed or bifurcated because they will be governed by different procedures and standards. First, the carrier incorrectly argued that the contract and loss of consortium claims go to a jury while bad faith is decided by the judge. While true in Pennsylvania state court actions, bad faith claims can go to the jury in federal court cases. Next the court rejected the notion that the jury would be confused in applying the preponderance of the evidence standard to the contract claim and clear and convincing evidence standard to the bad faith claim. Judge Dubois also rejected the argument that the facts at issue on the two claims were entirely distinct.

“For example, one of plaintiffs’ assertions in the bad faith claim is that defendant failed to conduct an adequate investigation into plaintiffs’ injuries. This requires inquiry into two facts (1) the extent of plaintiffs’ injuries, and (2) the extent of defendant’s investigation into those injuries. The breach of contract claim also requires inquiry into the extent of plaintiffs’ injuries. A separate trial on the bad faith claim would require plaintiffs to present much of the same evidence to the second jury, ‘duplicating in many respects the presentation to the first jury.’ This would be expensive and time-consuming for all parties. Because of the factual overlap between the claims, it would be more convenient to have a single trial in this case. Accordingly, the convenience factor weighs against severance or bifurcation.”

There is no Prejudice Because the Work Product Doctrine Remains Functional.

As to prejudice, the insurer focused on protecting work product. Judge Dubois states: “On this factor, defendant contends that allowing discovery and trial for the claims to proceed simultaneously would prejudice defendant because discovery in the bad faith claim would require defendant to disclose the claim adjustor’s mental impressions, conclusions, and opinions as to the merits of the case, evidence that is not discoverable in the breach of contract case. … To the extent that the claim adjustor’s work product is protected, defendant’s argument is unconvincing.”

Judge Dubois joins the vast majority of opinions finding the attorney client privilege and work product doctrine do not fall by the wayside simply because an insured brings a bad faith claim: “The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure and longstanding judicial precedent protect work product from disclosure—protections that do not disappear merely because work product prepared in anticipation of litigation over one claim may also be relevant to a second claim. Allowing the claims to proceed simultaneously simply means [defendant] will be called upon to prove its entitlement to work product protection….”

Judicial Economy Favors a Single Action

As to judicial economy:

“Defendant’s argument as to this factor is that, should plaintiffs fail on their breach of contract claim, the bad faith claim will be moot. As explained above, that is an incorrect statement of the law. Plaintiffs’ bad faith claim is based, in part, on defendant’s failure to investigate plaintiff’s insurance claims and communicate with plaintiffs regarding their claims. ‘A finding that the [insurer] did not ultimately have a duty to cover the plaintiff’s claim does not per se make the [insurer’s] actions reasonable’ in hindsight. Gallatin Fuels, Inc., 244 F. App’x at 434-35. Whether defendant ultimately owes plaintiff benefits under the policy is distinct from whether defendant appropriately handled the claims.” [See Note above re Toy v. Metropolitan and Buck v. GEICO.]

“To the contrary, a single trial promotes judicial economy because it avoids duplication of effort by the parties across multiple trials. Although the contractual and bad faith claims present distinct legal issues, the underlying facts overlap. Therefore, “[b]ifurcation would essentially double the life of this action requiring a second discovery period, more dispositive motions, more pretrial motions, and a completely separate trial,” much of which would concern the same factual basis. … Accordingly, the judicial economy factor weighs against severance or bifurcation.”

Date of Decision: September 11, 2020

Dunleavy v. Encompass Home & Auto Insurance Company, U.S. District Court Eastern District of Pennsylvania No. CV 20-1030, 2020 WL 5501200 (E.D. Pa. Sept. 11, 2020) (DuBois, J.)

INSURER PUT ON UNREBUTTED EVIDENCE THAT ITS CLAIM DENIAL WAS REASONABLE (Philadelphia Federal)

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In this case, the insurer moved for summary judgment on bad faith, and the insured did not respond to the motion. After a review of the record and legal arguments, the Court granted the insurer’s motion.

The case involved a personal injury. The insurer had an independent medical review performed on the insured’s medical records. The carrier’s doctor concluded that the injuries the insured alleged were not the result of the accident at issue. Rather, those injuries were caused by a prior accident. The carrier argued this alone was sufficient to establish a reasonable basis to deny coverage.

As stated, the insured did not respond to the carrier’s motion, and thus put forward no evidence that the insurer acted in bad faith by failing to consider the relevant medical records. Judge Brody agreed:

“After reviewing [the] motion and evidence, I conclude that [the insurer] has satisfied its summary-judgment burden, shifting the burden to Plaintiff to demonstrate the existence of genuine disputes of material fact that preclude summary judgment. Plaintiff has failed to carry his burden. Despite several chances to do so, Plaintiff never filed any objection to [the] Motion for Partial Summary Judgment. He has not pointed to any evidence that [the insurer] behaved in bad faith, nor has he offered any evidence to refute the evidence [the insurer] offered in support of its motion.”

Date of Decision: August 13, 2020

Dwyer v. Nationwide Property and Casualty Insurance Company, U.S. District Court Eastern District of Pennsylvania No. CV 19-2814, 2020 WL 4699047 (E.D. Pa. Aug. 13, 2020) (Brody, J.)

Institutional Discovery in Breach of Contract and Bad Faith Case (Lackawanna Common Pleas)

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The excellent Tort Talk Blog posted a Court of Common Pleas of Lackawanna County case summary today, addressing institutional discovery in a breach of contract/bad faith case.

BAD FAITH CLAIM CAN PROCEED EVEN THOUGHT CONTRACT CLAIM DISMISSED AS UNTIMELY; ADJUSTOR AND INVESTIGATOR NOT SUBJECT TO BAD FAITH STATUTE (Philadelphia Federal)

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This case involved breach of contract and bad faith claims against the insurer based on its decision not to cover the alleged theft of jewelry. The insurer engaged an investigation firm to look into the theft. The individual investigator assigned to the claim raised questions about either the ownership of the jewelry, or whether it was actually stolen in a burglary.

The insurer was granted judgment on the pleadings as to the breach of insurance contract claim. The policy had a one-year limitations period for brining suit, and the insured failed to file her action within one year.

Even though there was no coverage due because of the contractual limitations period, however, the court denied summary judgment on the bad faith claim. The insurer argued that the insured’s “deposition testimony shows that she cannot meet her burden of establishing bad faith.” The court found this argument premature.

The case had been removed to federal court and immediately placed in the arbitration track. There were no formal discovery requests from any party. The court found that the “litigation that has ensued does not preclude full and fair discovery on fact-driven claims that remain on the bad-faith count.” Thus, summary judgment was premature, and the motion was dismissed without prejudice. Judge Rufe added a requirement that the parties had to report jointly regarding to the court on what discovery was being pursued, if any, heading into the arbitration.

[Note: The insurer apparently did not attempt to argue that if the contract claim was dismissed, then the bad faith claim necessarily failed. There is some case law holding if the contract claim is dismissed on the basis of a contractual limitations period, the bad faith claim can still proceed. See, e.g., Doylestown Electrical Supply Co. v. Maryland Casualty Ins. Co., 942 F. Supp. 1018 (E.D. Pa. 1996) and March v. Paradise Mutual Ins. Co., 646 A.2d 1254 (Pa. Super. 1994), appeal denied, 540 Pa. 613, 656 A.2d 118 (1995).]

Finally, the insured attempted to amend the complaint to add claims against the insurer’s claim adjustor, the company it hired to investigate the claim and the individual investigator. The court found these claims meritless and would not allow amendment.

An individual adjustor working for an insurer is not an insurer. Thus, the individual adjustor was not subject to (i) a breach of contract claim because he was not a party to the contract; or (ii) the bad faith claim because Pennsylvania’s bad faith statute only applies to insurers. The same reasoning applied to the investigators.

Date of Decision: April 30, 2020

Holden v. Homesite Insurance Co., U.S. District Court Eastern District of Pennsylvania CIVIL ACTION NO. 19-2167, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 75904 (E.D. Pa. April 30, 2020) (Rufe, J.)

 

UIM JURY VERDICT NOT RELEVANT TO BAD FAITH CASE BECAUSE IT OCCURRED AFTER THE INSURER HAD COMPLETED ITS CLAIM EVALUATION (Philadelphia Federal)

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In this UIM bad faith case, the insureds demanded UIM policy limits which the insurer did not pay. The insureds took their case to trial, and the jury verdict far exceeded policy limits. The insureds pursued a claim for bad faith, arguing among other things that the jury verdict could be used as evidence of bad faith.

The court disagreed. Bad faith can only be determined based on the insurer’s conduct in evaluating the claim when it was submitted and on “the information available to the insurer during the claims processing”. The jury verdict was rendered after the insurer had done its claim evaluation. Thus, the jury verdict was not relevant to bad faith.

The central legal issue in the case was whether the insureds had executed some version of an enforceable UIM policy limit sign down, below their liability coverage. The court’s detailed analysis revealed that the insured’s application, which would otherwise have effected an enforceable sign down, was ineffective because it made that decision contingent on another required form that was only signed over one month later. The accident at issue occurred during the interim. The court found that there was no effective sign down, and the UIM limits defaulted to the liability limits, a difference between $300,000 and $750,000.

The insureds claimed that asking them to sign the second document constituted bad faith. The insurer consistently took the position that the second document was not necessary to succeed on the sign down argument; rather, the application controlled and the second document was basically redundant.

Magistrate Judge Rice disagreed with the carrier’s position on the application as stated above, but still found no bad faith:

“Nor does the failure to have [the insured] sign the UIM coverage selection form until [one month after the application] constitute bad faith. [The insurer] consistently maintained that the … application established the UIM policy limit, and the [insureds] had access to all relevant documents at all times. My post-trial disagreement with that determination fails to establish … bad faith.”

Date of Decision: February 18, 2020

Gibson v. State Farm Fire & Cas. Co., U.S. District Court Eastern District of Pennsylvania CIVIL ACTION No. 18-4919, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 27531 (E.D. Pa. Feb. 18, 2020) (Rice, M.J.)

INSURER’S RELIANCE ON ADVICE OF COUNSEL, AMONG MANY OTHER FACTORS FAVORING THE INSURER, DEFEATS BAD FAITH CLAIM (Philadelphia Federal)

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This case involves a head-spinning array of factual discrepancies between the insured’s claims to the carrier and the results of the insurer’s investigation. These range from whether the insured actually owned the property to whether the structure at issue collapsed from a sudden event or collapsed because of (uncovered) faulty construction. We leave you to the court’s lengthy and detailed narrative concerning these discrepancies, and the various coverage issues invoked by their presence. Of particular interest here is that in addition to involving an adjuster, SIU adjuster, supervisor and engineering expert, the insurer also puts its outside counsel’s coverage opinion on the record.  

The insured brought a bad faith claim, and the insurer moved for summary judgment after making a detailed record.  The insurer asserted various bases for why it was entitled to summary judgment. In granting summary judgment, the court stated that, at a minimum, there was a reasonable basis to deny coverage:

“The record indicates that [the insurer] conducted a thorough investigation of the claim and ultimately decided that coverage should be denied. Indeed, [a] property adjuster and an SIU adjuster inspected Plaintiff’s loss; the claim was reviewed by [a] supervisor; [the insurer] took the recorded statement of Plaintiff and reviewed relevant property documentation from the City of Philadelphia; [the insurer] obtained the services of a structural engineer; and [the insurer] then sent the structural engineer’s report, which opined on the cause of the loss, to independent legal counsel for an opinion on the coverage. Finally, relying upon independent legal counsel’s conclusion that coverage did not exist for Plaintiff’s loss, [the insurer] denied Plaintiff’s insurance claim. It cannot be said that [the insurer]’s investigation and decision-making process was ‘frivolous or unfounded,’ as required under Pennsylvania law to succeed on a bad faith claim.”

The court added, “the factual record is devoid of any ‘clear, direct, weighty and convincing’ evidence that would allow a factfinder to find ‘without hesitation’ that [the insurer] acted in bad faith in investigating and ultimately denying Plaintiff’s insurance claim.”

Moreover, even if the insured could make a case for unreasonableness, “the record is devoid of any evidence that [the insurer] either knew it had an unreasonable basis for denying coverage or recklessly disregarded its lack of a reasonable basis in denying Plaintiff’s claim or in the manner in which it investigated Plaintiff’s claimed loss.” The record shows the contrary. The insurer not only engaged a structural engineer, but also independent legal counsel to analyze coverage. It then “relied on the independent findings of both the expert and legal counsel in its ultimate decision to deny” the claim.

Date of Decision: February 14, 2020

Nguyen v. Allstate Insurance Co., U.S. District Court Eastern District of Pennsylvania CIVIL ACTION No. 18-5019, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 25789 (E.D. Pa. Feb. 14, 2020) (Kenney, J.)

 

INSURED SETS OUT BAD FAITH DELAY CLAIM, AS WELL AS CLAIM FOR ATTORNEY’S FEES (Philadelphia Federal)

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This UIM case involved a claim for full policy limits, amounting to $45,000. The insured alleged serious permanent injuries.

Over two years passed from the time the insured gave notice until the time of suit, with the claim neither paid nor denied. The insured filed suit for declaratory judgment, breach of contract, and bad faith. The insurer moved to dismiss the bad faith claim and attorney’s fee claim, and the court denied the motion.

Bad Faith Claim Based on Delay Adequately Pleaded

The court recognized at least two sources of statutory bad faith: (1) failure to pay and (2) delay in making payment. As to the first, “[w]here a claim of bad faith is based on a refusal to pay benefits under a policy, ‘the plaintiff must show that the defendant did not have a reasonable basis for denying benefits under the policy and that defendant knew or recklessly disregarded its lack of reasonable basis in denying the claim.’” As to the second, “[t]o sufficiently plead bad faith by way of delay, ‘a plaintiff must allege that a defendant had no reasonable basis for the delay in coverage, and that the defendant delayed coverage with knowing or reckless disregard for the unreasonableness of its action.’”

The court found bad faith delay pleaded, based on the following factual allegations:

  1. The insurer “was put on notice of [the] underinsured motorist benefits claim in March 2017.”

  2. “In January 2018, [the insurer] waived its subrogation rights and consented to … settlement with the third-party insurance carrier.”

  3. “On March 30, 2018, [the insurer] advised [the insured] that her claim for underinsured motorist benefits was being evaluated.”

  4. “From April to July 2018, the parties communicated regarding scheduling an EUO, which took place on July 9, 2018.” As pleaded, it was the insurer that sought an EUO in July, and the insured asked to move it up.

  5. “On July 26, 2018, [the insurer] advised [the insured] that it would likely require her to undergo an IME, however, [the insurer] never moved forward with the IME.”

  6. “Between August 2018 and February 2019, [the insured] provided medical records to [the insurer], both unsolicited and at their request.”

  7. “Between February and June 2019, [the insurer] did not notify [the insured] as to the status of her claim, and at the time of the filing of the instant Complaint in September 2019, [the insurer] had neither paid [the] claim, nor denied it.”

The court summarized how these factual allegations made out a bad faith claim. The insured repeatedly tried to have her claim evaluated. She complied with requests for information, provided unsolicited information, and inquired as to the claim status. However, “despite having over two years to conduct its investigation, [the insurer] has unreasonably and without justification failed to approve or deny her claim.” Based on these factual allegations, there appears no reasonable basis to delay the claim evaluation, which the court equated with a failure to evaluate. The knowing/reckless bad faith element was met because the insured had given notice to the insurer through her inquiries and providing information that the claim had not been paid or rejected.

The court cited the Ridolfi, Kelly, and Smerdon cases concerning a delay-based bad faith analysis.

Clear and Convincing Evidence Standard Held Irrelevant at Pleading Stage

The court rejected the argument that the factual pleadings had to be measured against the clear and convincing evidence standard at the motion to dismiss stage. The court stated this standard is relevant, e.g., to trial, but not at the pleading stage. Rather, pleadings are governed by the plausibility standard. Thus, the insured “need not ‘establish’ anything at this early point in the proceedings, let alone ‘by clear and convincing evidence.’” “Whether sufficient facts will be discovered for [the insured] to survive a motion for summary judgment is unknown and may be addressed at a later date.”

Attorney’s Fees Possible under Bad Faith Statute or MVFRL

Finally, the court refused to dismiss the attorney’s fee claim based on both the bad faith statute, and the possibility that attorney’s fees might be permitted under section 1716 of the Motor Vehicle Financial Responsibility Law.

Date of Decision: January 24, 2020

Solano-Sanchez v. State Farm Mutual Auto Insurance Co., U. S. District Court Eastern District of Pennsylvania No. No. 5:19-cv-04016, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 11784 (E.D. Pa. Jan. 24, 2020) (Leeson, Jr., J.)

BAD FAITH CLAIM CAN PROCEED TO TRIAL WHERE RECORD SHOWED A POTENTIAL BASIS FOR COVERAGE, EVEN THOUGH INSURER BELIEVED THAT BASIS WAS ONLY PUT FORWARD IN AN ATTEMPT TO EVADE A WAIVER (Middle District)

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In this bad faith case, one type of injury was specifically not covered under a disability policy, pursuant to a waiver, but other forms of injury might be covered. The insurer denied the claim on the basis that the uncovered injury was the only injury that could have caused the disability at issue. The insured two types of injury were at issue, and brought breach of contract and bad faith claims.

The insured moved for summary judgment on the bad faith claim.

Middle District Judge James Munley found the record showed evidence of both uncovered and covered injuries. The insurer argued that the covered injury type was merely put forward as a make weight to avoid the true, uncovered, injury being the only basis for the disability claim.

As this was a summary judgment motion, the court could not disregard record evidence of either injury. Taking the evidence in the non-movant’s favor, the court found that (1) because the insurer reviewed the record before denying coverage and (2) the record included a covered claim as well as an uncovered claim, then (3) “these facts may show that [the insurer] knew it lacked a reasonable basis for denying the plaintiff’s disability insurance claim, or it recklessly disregarded its lack of a reasonable basis for doing so.”

“Therefore, plaintiff has sufficient evidence, which if credited by the jury, would support his bad faith claim making summary judgment for the defendant inappropriate here.”

Date of Decision: January 13, 2020

Dileo v. Federated Life Ins. Co., U. S. District Court Middle District of Pennsylvania No. 3:18cv628, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5003 (M.D. Pa. Jan. 13, 2020) (Munley, J.)